Bernardo O'Higgins, a member of the O'Higgins Family, was born in the Chilean city of Chillán in 1778, the illegitimate son of Ambrosio O'Higgins, 1st Marquis of Osorno, a Spanish officer born in County Sligo, Ireland, who became governor of Chile and later viceroy of Peru. Ambrosio Bernardo O'Higgins, 1st Marquess of Osorno born Ambrose Bernard O'Higgins, was an Irish-Spanish colonial administrator and a member of the O'Higgins family. Archivo de don Bernardo O'Higgins, vol. Within Chile, O'Higgins established markets, courts, colleges, libraries, hospitals, and cemeteries,[7] and began important improvements in agriculture. O'Higgins turned to focus on Carrera, and their forces met at the battle of Las Tres Acequias, where Luis Carrera inflicted a modest defeat on O'Higgins. Although O’Higgins was the second Supreme Director of Chile (1817–1823), he is considered one of Chile’s founding fathers, as he was the first holder of this title to head a fully independent Chilean state. The Ó hUiginn family were high status poets between the 14th and 17th centuries and descendants include Bernardo O'Higgins, the first head of state of Chile, and Kevin O'Higgins who was Minister for Justice in the first Irish Free State government. The government became bankrupt, forcing O'Higgins to send Antonio José de Irisarri to England to negotiate a £1 million loan—Chile's first foreign debt—whilst a massive earthquake in central Chile added more difficulty for the ruler. Bernardo O'Higgins, a member of the O'Higgins family, was born in the Chilean city of Chillán in 1778, the illegitimate son of Ambrosio O'Higgins, 1st Marquis of Osorno, a Spanish officer born in County Sligo, Ireland, who became governor of Chile and later viceroy of Peru. O'Higgins mobilised his local militia and marched to Concepcion,[13] before moving onto Talca, meeting up with Carrera, who was to take command of the new army. [9] In 1813, when the Spanish government made its first attempt to reconquer Chile—sending an expedition led by Brigadier Antonio Pareja—Carrera, as a former national leader and now Commander in Chief of the Army, was by far the more prominent figure of the two, and a natural choice to lead the military resistance. Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from September 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2014, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, People of the Chilean War of Independence, People of the Spanish American wars of independence, People of the Latin American wars of independence, Ambrosio O'Higgins, 1st Marquis of Osorno, proclaimed itself an independent republic, Avenida Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, http://gosouthamerica.about.com/cs/southamerica/a/ChieBOhiggins.htm, http://www.irlandeses.org/0610sepulveda2.htm, GENERAL FRANCISCO DE MIRANDA FATHER OF REVOLUTIONARY MASONRY IN LATIN AMERICA, San Martín, José de: Liberator of Argentina, http://www.irlandeses.org/dilab_mackennaj.htm, http://www.irlandeses.org/0610sepulveda1.htm, Prof. Pedro Godoy, Yungay: ¿festejo o funeral?, Centro de Estudios Chilenos CEDECH, http://www.bluegreenadventures.com/BernardoHiggins.html, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/property/periodproperty/9821880/Homes-for-sale-with-blue-plaques.html?frame=2460157, http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2010/03/chile_three_days_later.html, http://www.henrycowell.org/hc/sf002/catalogNp233.cfm, El ostracismo del jeneral D. Bernardo O'Higgins, Bernardo O'Higgins: The Rebel Son of a Viceroy, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Bernardo_O%27Higgins?oldid=4441138, Articles incorporating text from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, "O'Higgins, Bernardo." that Isabel's family would not have seen the match as advantageous at the time. Bernardo O'Higgins was a member of the O'Higgins Family who was born in the Chilean city of Chillán in 1778, the illegitimate son of Ambrosio O'Higgins, 1st Marquis of Osorno,[2] a Spanish officer born in County Sligo, Ireland, who became governor of Chile and later viceroy of Peru. [16] He also undertook various military reforms. A plaque has also been erected in Cadiz, Spain, in the Plaza de Candelaria, where he resided for four years. Eric BERNARD. After their retreat in 1814, O'Higgins had fared much better than Carrera, who found little support forthcoming from San Martín, O'Higgins' political ally. Bernardo O'Higgins was born on 20 August 1778, in Chillán, a small village in southern Chile. At the last hour, however, O'Higgins instead garrisoned the nationalist forces at the main square of Rancagua. Ambrosio Bernardo O'Higgins, 1st Marquess of Osornoborn Ambrose Bernard O'Higgins, was a Spanish colonial administrator and a member of the O'Higgins family. We will break through the enemy! Although he was the second Supreme Director of Chile (1817–1823), he is considered one of Chile’s founding fathers, as he was the first holder of this title to head a fully independent Chilean state. He was a leader in the Chilean war of independence and is considered the “Founding Father of Chile”. His mother was Isabel Riquelme, a prominent local lady and daughter of Don Simón Riquelme y Goycolea, a member of the Chillán Cabildo, or council. O'Higgins (Irish: Ó hUiginn) is an Irish noble family descended from Shean (Seán) Duff O'Higgins (fl. Desde hoy el general O'Higgins ya no existe; soy sólo el ciudadano particular Bernardo O'Higgins. S. Collier, Ideas and politics of Chilean independence, 1808–1833 (New York, 1967). He was a leader in the Chilean war of independence and is considered the “Founding Father of Chile”. Society for Irish Latin American Studies, 2006. [29], In 1949, American composer Henry Cowell composed an opera on the life of O'Higgins titled O'Higgins of Chile. General O'Higgins, supposedly seeing his homeland and being overcome with passion, defied the plan of attack and charged along with his 1,500 troops. [27], There is a bust of O'Higgins in O'Higgins Square in Richmond, south-west London. As a result, O'Higgins was to find himself increasingly in political and military competition with Carrera—although early on, O'Higgins was nowhere near as prominent as his later rival. Carrera was subsequently captured and imprisoned by the royalist forces; in his absence, in May 1814 O'Higgins supported the Treaty of Lircay, which promised a halt to the fighting. [citation needed], O'Higgins was deposed by a conservative coup on 28 January 1823. He had a distant relationship with Ambrosio, who supported him financially and was concerned with his education, but the two never met in person. The Unknown Boy Who Turned into a Great Leader. San Martín sent his troops down the mountain starting at midnight of 11 February to prepare for an attack at dawn. O'Higgins and his men overwhelmed the Spanish troops, who attempted to retreat, but Soler's men cut off their retreat and pushed towards the ranch. The argument as to the relative contribution of these two great Chilean independence leaders, however, has continued up to the modern day, and O'Higgins' decision not to intervene to prevent the execution coloured many Chileans' views of his reign. There, studying history and the arts, Bernardo became acquainted with American ideas of independence and developed a sense of nationalist pride, coming to admire liberalism in the Georgian British model. A blue plaque was erected in his honor at Clarence House in Richmond, where he lived while studying in London. 2008. High-ranking Spanish government officials in America were forbidden to marry locals, but at the time of Bernardo's birth Ambrosio O'Higgins was only a junior military officer. The Irish in Chile: Bernardo O'Higgins created the South American country I have been visiting Chile since 1991 and had learned quite a bit about Bernardo O’Higgins… The original holder of the name was a grandson of Niall of the Nine Hostages, High King of Tara, and all of the O'Higgins claim a common descent from him. O'Higgins was of Spanish and Irish[1] ancestry. His father, who served as a military engineer for the Spanish crown, came to be Peru's viceroy. In 1880, the Province of O'Higgins was created, which in 1975 went on to form, together with the Province of Colchagua, the Region of Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins. The dictator of Chile’s first independent government and a brilliant soldier, Bernardo O’Higgins led the Chilean patriots in their battle for independence. As noted in his Certificate of Baptism, he was the illegitimate son of Ambrosio O’Higgins, a Spanish officer of Irish origin who became governor of Chile and later viceroy of Peru; his mother was Isabel Riquelme, a prominent lady of Chillán. His mother was Isabel Riquelme, a prominent local lady[2] and daughter of Don Simón Riquelme y Goycolea, a member of the Chillán Cabildo, or council. An easily defended bottleneck southern Chile, born in Chillán, a prominent local, and took longer than.! ), Gaelic Baron of Ballynary, who was in the Americas to abolish slavery. Until O'Higgins received a letter, adopted his father, whom he met... 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